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Every introduction should have four parts: a good beginning, a transition to the topic, a topic statement, and a thesis. Every conclusion should also have four parts: a link to the introduction’s good beginning, a topic statement, a thesis, and a concluding statement.
Follow these steps to write a coherent and cohesive introduction that starts with a general idea and focuses to the specifics of the essay. The use of general to specific is sometimes called the “global statement” process.
1. Write an outline like this one:
2. Identify the topic of the essay and write it at letter D.
3. Write a list of specific things you will write about the essay topic. List these topics for each of the body paragraphs at 1, 2, and 3. If you will be writing an essay longer than five paragraphs, you will need to add numbers. 4 would give a six paragraph essay. 5 would make your essay seven paragraphs long.
4. Think of a list of other things that are like your essay topic. You will need to have three. For example if you are writing about Lewis and Clark you might want to list three other explorers or explorer teams. If you are writing about Saturn you might want to list three other planets. Write these three items at A, B, and C. The only place in your essay where you will use this list is in the transition sentence in your introduction.
5. Give the four items in A, B, C, and D a label. Write that label at I in the outline. For example the label for essay on Lewis and Clark could be “famous explorers,” or the label for the essay on Saturn could be “planets.”
6. Write a sentence using the word at I. This sentence will be your good beginning sentence.
7. Write a sentence that lists A, B, and C as examples of I. This is your transition sentence.
8. Write a sentence about D. This is your topic sentence.
9. Write a sentence listing 1, 2, and 3. This is your thesis. When you write the body paragraphs you will write one paragraph about each of the items in this list. Use the SEE 123 method to write the body paragraphs.
Follow these steps to write a conclusion. You will use parts of your introduction and the outline you wrote for the introduction.
1. Create a link to the introduction’s good beginning sentence by transposing the first sentence of the introduction. To transpose, write the end of the sentence first and the beginning of the sentence second.
2. Rewrite the topic sentence. This is the sentence you wrote from D in your outline.
3. In order to create a conclusion that is not identical to the introduction, think of other words you can use for the ones listed in 1, 2, and 3 of your outline. Write a thesis using these new words. Be sure to list them in the same order you used in the introduction.
4. Finally write a twist that will leave your reader with a good impression. Say something bigger about the word you wrote at I in you outline. Consider telling why.